Table of Contents
1. THE NEED FOR WATER IN ANCIENT SOCIETIES (3100 B.C.E.–100 C.E.).
Aerial Photograph of Pre-Roman City in Italy. Major Ancient Levees Identifiable in LANDSAT Imagery. Early Egyptian King Cutting an Irrigation Ditch, Drawn from Mace-head Carving, 3100 B.C.E. Shaduf. Saqiya. Square-Pallet Chain Pump. Noria. Sections from the Code of Hammurabi Referring to Irrigation, 1750 B.C.E. Sima Qian’s Description of the Building of the Zhengguo Canal, ca. 100 B.C.E. Suetonius’s Description of the Water Projects Undertaken by Emperor Claudius (r. 41–54 C.E.). Activities of Shao Xinchen, Han Dynasty, before 33 B.C.E. Frontinus’s Discussion of Rome’s Water System ca. 100 C.E. Memorial from Jia Rang, 1st century B.C.E.
2. WRITING AND POWER: DEFINING WORLD-VIEWS (1750 B.C.E.–250 C.E.).
Excerpts from Atra-hasis. Excerpts from Book 10 of the Rig Veda. From the First Book of Moses, called Genesis. From Yijing, Commentary on the Appended Judgments. From Popol Vuh, “The Book of the People.” From “The Beginning of the World,” in Kojiki.
3. REPRESENTING THE HUMAN FORM (600 B.C.E.–1500 C.E.).
Anavyssos Kouros, Attica near Athens, ca. 525 B.C.E. Peplos Kore, Athens, ca. 530 B.C.E. Theseus and the Amazons, from an Attic Red-figured Krater,1 ca. 440 B.C.E. Polykleitos, Doryphoros or “The Canon,” ca. 440 B.C.E. (Roman copy). Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos, ca. 340 B.C.E. (Roman copy). Yakshi, from a Pillar at the Great Stupa of Bharhut, ca. 100 B.C.E. Standing Buddha, from Gandhara, ca. 200 C.E. Buddha with Halo, from Sarnath, Gupta Period, 5th Dynasty. Tibetan Sculpture of the Bodhisattva Vajrapani. Head of Pacal the Great, from His Tomb at Palenque, 684 C.E. Door Lintel Showing King Shield Jaguar and Lady Xoc in a Bloodletting Ritual, 709 C.E. Mural at Bonampak Showing King Chaan-muan Judging Defeated Enemies, 792 C.E. Vase Painting Showing God L, Several Goddesses, and Rabbit-Scribe, ca. 600–900 C.E. Terra-cotta Head of a King, Ife, ca. 1000–1200 C.E. Copper Obalufon Mask, Ife, 1000–1200 C.E. Brass Head of Queen Mother, Benin, ca. 1500. Brass Plaque Depicting the Oba Esigie, Benin, ca. 1500.
4. HAN AND ROME: ASSERTING IMPERIAL AUTHORITY (300 B.C.E.–400 C.E.).
From Sima Qian, The Annals of Qin, ca. second century B.C.E. Grave Mound of Qin Shi Huangdi at Mt. Li. Flanking Pit of Excavated Tomb of Qin Shi Huangdi. From Dong Zhongshu (Tung Chung-shu), Essays on Kingship. Han Wendi (Wen-ti), On the Eclipse of the Sun. From Caesar Augustus, The Achievements of the Divine Augustus. From Cassius Dio, Roman History. Roman Coin of the Reign of Emperor Nero (r. 54–68). Trajan’s Column, Rome. Detail from Trajan’s Column. Roman Temple Inscription in Myra, Lycia (Asia Minor). Edict and Speech of Nero to the Greeks.
5. INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES (300 B.C.E.–800 C.E.).
Selections from Ashoka (As´oka), Rock and Pillar Edicts. Ashokan Pillar with a Single-Lion Capital at Vaishali, India. From the Asokavadana. Constantinian Edicts. Selections from Eusebius, Life of Constantine. Two Constantinian Coins. Selections from the Qur’an. Selections from the Hadith. Selections from Ibn Ishaq, The Life of Muhammad, Apostle of Allah. From Abu Yusuf (d. A.H. 182/798 C.E.), Book of Land-tax. Muhammad Addresses Ali and Other Leaders Before the Battle of Badr, from Rashid al-Din, Jami’al-tawarikh.
6. VIKINGS AND POLYNESIANS: EXPLORING NEW WORLDS (300–1100).
From Adam of Bremen, History of the Archbishoprics of Hamburg-Bremen, 11th century. Illuminated French Manuscript on Life of St. Aubin, St. Aubin Abbey, ca. 1100. Memorial Stone, Gotland, Sweden, 8th to 9th century. Oseberg Viking Ship, Norway, 9th to 10th century. Runic Memorial Inscriptions, Germany, Norway, and Sweden. Buried Viking Hoard, Hon, Norway. From Greenlanders’ Saga, 13th Century. Site Plan, L’Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland, Canada and House, Stöng, Iceland. from William Ellis, Polynesian Researches, 19th Century. Detail from William Hodges, Tahiti Revisited, 1776. Petroglyphs of Hawaiian Canoes. Reconstructed Double-Hulled Hawaiian Canoe Hokule’a and Route of Its Voyages. From David Malo, Hawaiian Antiquities, early 19th century. Excerpts from the Oral Traditions of Rennell and Bellona. Development Sequence of Polynesian Languages. Plant Species Introduced into Polynesia Before European Contact. Monolithic Statues.
7. TWO FACES OF “HOLY WAR”: CHRISTIANS AND MUSLIMS (1095–1270S).
Muslims on Christians: Usamah ibn-Munqidh Describes the Franks. Ibn al-Athir, The Capture of Jerusalem, 1187. From Imad ad-Din, History of the Fall of Jerusalem. Europeans on Muslims: From Peter Tudebode, History of the Jerusalem Journey. From Fulcher of Chartres, A History of the Expedition to Jerusalem, 1095-1127. From William of Tyre, A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea. Geoffrey de Vinsauf, “How Saladin, extolling the law of Mahomet, is reproved by a jester.” Ambrose, “How the Infidels Had Desecrated the Churches of Acre.” de Joinville, “Something Concerning These Bedouins.”
8. FICTION AND THE EMOTIONS IN JAPANESE, ARABIAN, AND IRISH CULTURE (1000–1400 C.E.).
From the Tale of the Genji. From the Arabian Nights. From “The Wooing of Emer.”
9. THE MONGOL CONQUEST: SCOURGE OR STIMULUS? (1206–1360).
From The Secret History of the Mongols. Selections from “A Journey to the West” by Yelü Chucai. Selections from Rashīd al-Dīn Tabib’s The Successors of Genghiz Khan. Selections from Juvaini’s The History of the World Conqueror. Persian Miniature Illustrating a Mongol Attack on a City. Tale of the Destruction of Riazan. The Account of John de Plano Carpini. Selections from the Travel Account of William of Rubruck. From Francis Balducci Pegolotti, Book of Description of Countries.
10. REGIONAL METROPOLISES: CONSTANTINOPLE AND TENOCHTITLÁN (1160–1521).
From Benjamin of Tudela, Travels of Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela, 1160–1173. From Robert of Clari, Conquest of Constantinople, 1203. Nicetas Choniates, “Destruction of Ancient Art in the Latin Sack of Constantinople.” Illustrated Map of Constantinople, 13th century. Interior, Saint Sophia. George Acropolites, “The Byzantine Recovery of Constantinople: Thanksgiving and Celebration,” 1261. Chrysobull Detailing Extraordinary Privileges for the Venetians, 1082. Letter of Hernan Cortés to Charles V, King of Spain. From Bernal Díaz del Castillo, The Discovery and Conquest of Mexico. Spanish Illustrated Map of Tenochtitlán, Printed in Nuremberg, 1524. The Excavated Site of the Great Temple Enclosure. The Great Temple Enclosure at Tenochtitlán, from the Florentine Codex.
11. SACRED JOURNEYS: PILGRIMAGES IN BUDDHISM AND ISLAM (629–1324)
From the Diary of Ennin, 838-847. From Journey to the West, or The Monkey-King, 17th century. Modern Portrait of Xuanzang. From Naser-e Khosraw, Book of Travels. The Travels of Ibn Jubayr. From al-Maqrizi’s Account of Mansa Musa. From al-Umari’s Account of Mansa Musa. From Ibn Khaldun’s Account of Mansa Musa.
12. THE WELL-EDUCATED MAN: STUDENTS AND SCHOLARS IN CHINA, PARIS, AND TIMBUKTU (1180–1600).
Zhu Xi, Articles of the White Deer Grotto Academy, 1180. Zhu Xi, Proposals for Schools and Official Recruitment, 1195. Cheng Duanli, A Schedule for Learning, 1315. Description of Ahmad al-Tinbukti, from Ahmad Baba, al-Dhayl, ca. 1600. Description of Muhammad Baghayogho, from Ahmad Baba, al-Dhayl, ca. 1600. Statutes for the University of Paris Issued by Robert Courçon, 1215. Rules for Licensing a Student to Teach at the University of Paris. Robert de Sorbon’s Regulations for His College, Before 1274.
13. FACING THE BLACK DEATH (1300–1400).
From Ibn Khaldun, The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History. From Giovanni Boccaccio, The Decameron. From Ibn Battuta, Travels in Asia and Africa, 1325–1354. From Ioannes Cautacuzenos (John VI of Byzantium), Historarum. From the Chronicle of Jean de Venette. Lieferinxe, St. Sebastian Interceding for the Plague-Stricken. A Prayer to St. Sebastian. Citations from the Hadith. An Arab Doctor’s Medical Perspective on the Black Death. Cryptograms. From Ibn al-Wardi, “An Essay on the Report of the Pestilence.” A Fifteenth-Century Treatise on the Pestilence. From Report of the Paris Medical Faculty, October 1348. A Wholesome Medicine Against All Infirmities. From Petrarch, “Letters on Familiar Matters.”
14. CROSS-CULTURAL ENCOUNTERS: TRAVEL, RELIGION, CONQUESTS, AND TRADE (1400–1700).
China: Zheng He’s Inscriptions in Stone, 1431. Zhang Han’s Essay on Merchants. The Biography of Zhu Jiefu. Chang Hsieh’s Advice to Traders (1618). Europe: Christopher Columbus Journal, 1530s. Las Casas, Teaching the True Religion (1530s). Richard Hakluyt (the Younger), Discourse on Western Planting (1584). Sir John Chardin, Travels in Persia. Thomas Mun, England’s Treasure (1664). Muslim Regions: Travels of Ibn Battuta, c. 1353. Evliyá Efendí, Narrative of Travels. Africa: Nzinga Mbemba, King of Kongo, to the King of Portugal, 1526. Pate Chronicle. Statistics: Rates of Population Growth, 1000-1820 (ave. annual compound growth rates). Per Capita Gross Domestic Product (in 1990 international dollars), 1000-1700. Population and Gross Domestic Product Growth, 1500-1700 (in %). Urbanization Ratios in China and Western Europe, 1000-1700 (population in cities 10,000 and over as percentage of total population). Slave Exports from Africa, By Destination (000s), 650-1800. World Gold Output by Region, 1493-1700 (in million fine oz.). Gold and Silver Shipments from the Americas to Europe, 1500-1700 (metric tons). Exports of Gold and Silver from Europe, 1600-1700 (metric tons of silver equivalent). Tobacco Imported to England from Virginia and Maryland Colonies, 1620-1700 (000s pounds). Number of Ships Sailing to Asia by Country, 1500-1700. Sugar Exports from Barbados to London, 1651-1700 (in tons). Sugar Production in Brazil, 1600-1625 (in metric tons). Wealth Distribution in Mughul Empire, c. 1600 (in percentages).